Gay Fathers by Surrogacy: Prejudice, Parenting, and Well-Being of Female and Male Children
This research focused on behavioral functioning of children conceived via gestational surrogacy and raised by gay fathers. Children of gay fathers received significantly lower scores on internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (aggression, rule-breaking) than children in the comparison sample. Most notably, daughters of gay fathers had significantly lower internalizing scores than did daughters in the national database. Results are discussed in terms of gay and heterosexual parents’ gender-related socialization of daughters’ internalizing problems and the impact of minority stress on same-sex couples’ parenting.