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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Surrogacy families headed by gay men: relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ decisions over disclosure and children’s views on their surrogacy origins

STUDY QUESTION

How do gay father families experience surrogacy in terms of their relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ disclosure decisions and children’s views on their surrogacy origins?

SUMMARY ANSWER

More families had a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor, and almost all had started to disclose to their children, the majority of whom expressed limited interest in their surrogacy conception.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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Italian gay fathers' experiences of transnational surrogacy and their relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth

This study aims to explore the experience of transnational surrogacy and the relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth in Italian gay father families. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis indicated that three interrelated themes could be helpful for understanding the gay fathers' experience of their geographical distance from the surrogate: the perceived loss of control over the pregnancy; the surrogate as a person who facilitates the fathers' feelings of being emotionally connected to their developing child; the surrogate as an ‘aunty’ who, along with her family, maintains a relationship with the fathers.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SURROGATES GAY FATHERS AND CHILDREN
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Gay father surrogacy families: relationships with surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins

Objective

To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins.

Result(s)

The majority of fathers were content with the level of contact they had with the surrogate, with those who were discontent wanting more contact. Fathers were more likely to maintain relationships with surrogates than egg donors, and almost all families had started the process of talking to their children about their origins, with the level of detail and children's understanding increasing with the age of the child.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

BACKGROUND

This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception.

CONCLUSIONS

Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN HP FAMILIES
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Secrecy, disclosure and everything in-between: decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy

This study examined families where children lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their parents. Despite a shift in professional attitudes towards openness, about half of the children conceived by egg donation and nearly three-quarters of those conceived by donor insemination remained unaware that the person they know as their mother or father is not, in fact, their genetic parent. By contrast, almost all the surrogacy parents had told their child how they were born. A majority of parents who planned never to tell their child about their conception had told at least one other person. 

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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