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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Gay Fathers by Surrogacy: Prejudice, Parenting, and Well-Being of Female and Male Children

This research focused on behavioral functioning of children conceived via gestational surrogacy and raised by gay fathers. Children of gay fathers received significantly lower scores on internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (aggression, rule-breaking) than children in the comparison sample. Most notably, daughters of gay fathers had significantly lower internalizing scores than did daughters in the national database. Results are discussed in terms of gay and heterosexual parents’ gender-related socialization of daughters’ internalizing problems and the impact of minority stress on same-sex couples’ parenting.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED WELL-BEING OF SURROGACY CHILDREN OF GAY FATHERS
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Child attachment security in gay father surrogacy families: Parents as safe havens and secure bases during middle childhood

Child attachment security and utilization of parents as safe havens and secure bases were compared in 33 surrogacy children with gay fathers and 37 donor-conceived children with lesbian mothers during middle childhood. Findings indicated that children of gay fathers perceived high attachment security and their scores did not differ from those of children with lesbian mothers or from normative scores of children with heterosexual parents. Children used the primary attachment figure more as a safe haven and the secondary attachment more as a secure base, though they reported high levels of both types of support from both parents.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED WELL-BEING OF SURROGACY CHILDREN OF GAY FATHERS
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Parents' relationship with their surrogate in cross-border and domestic surrogacy arrangements: comparisons by sexual orientation and location

Objective

To study heterosexual and gay couples' relationship with their surrogate and their disclosure decisions when the surrogacy arrangement was completed domestically compared with internationally.

Result(s)

Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States felt very involved in the pregnancy compared with those who had surrogacy in Asia. Couples whose surrogacy was completed in Asia were less likely to want contact with their surrogate after the birth and were also less likely to have any current contact with the surrogate. Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States described positive relationships with their surrogate. Gay couples intended to tell their child about surrogacy more than heterosexual couples.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation

STUDY QUESTION

What are the perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation regarding their conception and the third party involved?

SUMMARY ANSWER

The majority of adolescents described feeling indifferent about their conception, and yet simultaneously reported an interest in the third party involved, or were in contact with them.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN HP FAMILIES
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The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates

STUDY QUESTION: How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? 

SUMMARY ANSWER: Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers.

Categories: SURROGATES’ BONDING TO THE FOETUS SURROGATES’ MARITAL QUALITY AND FAMILY SUPPORT
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Surrogacy families headed by gay men: relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ decisions over disclosure and children’s views on their surrogacy origins

STUDY QUESTION

How do gay father families experience surrogacy in terms of their relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ disclosure decisions and children’s views on their surrogacy origins?

SUMMARY ANSWER

More families had a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor, and almost all had started to disclose to their children, the majority of whom expressed limited interest in their surrogacy conception.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian-mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

STUDY QUESTION

Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?

SUMMARY ANSWER

There were no differences in parental wellbeing.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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A longitudinal study of families formed through reproductive donation: Parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment at age 14

The aim of the 6th phase of this longitudinal study was to establish whether children born through assisted reproduction involving reproductive donation were at risk for psychological problems following the transition to adolescence at age 14 and, if so, to examine the nature of these problems and the mechanisms involved. The findings suggest that the absence of a genetic link between mothers and their children is associated with less positive mother-adolescent relationships whereas the absence of a gestational link does not have an adverse effect.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED WELL-BEING OF SURROGACY CHILDREN OF HETEROSEXUAL PARENTS
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Single fathers by choice using surrogacy: why men decide to have a child as a single parent

STUDY QUESTION

Why do men decide to have a child by surrogacy as a single parent?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Reasons included feeling that it was the right time (i.e. having ‘worked through’ concerns about single parenthood; career and financial stability; a fear of getting older; no longer wanting to wait for the ‘right’ relationship), external encouragement, a desire to reproduce and a fear of separation/divorce.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SINGLE FATHERS
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Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood

STUDY QUESTION

Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF GAY FATHERS
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