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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation

STUDY QUESTION

What are the perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation regarding their conception and the third party involved?

SUMMARY ANSWER

The majority of adolescents described feeling indifferent about their conception, and yet simultaneously reported an interest in the third party involved, or were in contact with them.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN HP FAMILIES
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The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates

STUDY QUESTION: How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? 

SUMMARY ANSWER: Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers.

Categories: SURROGATES’ BONDING TO THE FOETUS SURROGATES’ MARITAL QUALITY AND FAMILY SUPPORT
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Surrogacy families headed by gay men: relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ decisions over disclosure and children’s views on their surrogacy origins

STUDY QUESTION

How do gay father families experience surrogacy in terms of their relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ disclosure decisions and children’s views on their surrogacy origins?

SUMMARY ANSWER

More families had a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor, and almost all had started to disclose to their children, the majority of whom expressed limited interest in their surrogacy conception.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian-mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

STUDY QUESTION

Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?

SUMMARY ANSWER

There were no differences in parental wellbeing.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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Single fathers by choice using surrogacy: why men decide to have a child as a single parent

STUDY QUESTION

Why do men decide to have a child by surrogacy as a single parent?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Reasons included feeling that it was the right time (i.e. having ‘worked through’ concerns about single parenthood; career and financial stability; a fear of getting older; no longer wanting to wait for the ‘right’ relationship), external encouragement, a desire to reproduce and a fear of separation/divorce.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SINGLE FATHERS
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Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood

STUDY QUESTION

Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF GAY FATHERS
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Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child

STUDY QUESTION

How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child?

SUMMARY ANSWER

The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY SURROGATES' FEELINGS TOWARDS THE SURROGACY CHILD
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Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy

STUDY QUESTION

What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children?

SUMMARY ANSWER

The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg.


Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS ON THE SURROGATES’ CHILDREN
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Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

BACKGROUND

This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception.

CONCLUSIONS

Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN HP FAMILIES
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Psychological trait and state characteristics, social support and attitudes to the surrogate pregnancy and baby

BACKGROUND

Personality differences between surrogate mothers (SMs) who gestate and relinquish and intended mothers (IMs) who commission a genetically related or unrelated baby have been unexplored in the UK. Furthermore, the psychological effects of the arrangement have not been determined in a prospective longitudinal study, making this the first quantitative report of psychological functioning in SMs and IMs.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences between or within SM and IM groups on personality characteristics. Social support, marital harmony and state anxiety differed significantly (to P < 0.01) between SMs and IMs at different stages of the arrangement. Differences in attitudes towards the pregnancy and the baby were also observed between groups during pregnancy (to P < 0.001), but there was no evidence of post-natal depression amongst the groups studied.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY SURROGATES’ BONDING TO THE FOETUS
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