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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Parents' relationship with their surrogate in cross-border and domestic surrogacy arrangements: comparisons by sexual orientation and location

Objective

To study heterosexual and gay couples' relationship with their surrogate and their disclosure decisions when the surrogacy arrangement was completed domestically compared with internationally.

Result(s)

Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States felt very involved in the pregnancy compared with those who had surrogacy in Asia. Couples whose surrogacy was completed in Asia were less likely to want contact with their surrogate after the birth and were also less likely to have any current contact with the surrogate. Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States described positive relationships with their surrogate. Gay couples intended to tell their child about surrogacy more than heterosexual couples.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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Gay father surrogacy families: relationships with surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins

Objective

To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins.

Result(s)

The majority of fathers were content with the level of contact they had with the surrogate, with those who were discontent wanting more contact. Fathers were more likely to maintain relationships with surrogates than egg donors, and almost all families had started the process of talking to their children about their origins, with the level of detail and children's understanding increasing with the age of the child.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents

Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy.

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Egg donors working with gestational surrogacy agencies: Motivations and personality traits

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates motivations and personality characteristics of egg donors working with gestational surrogacy agencies. The personality traits of egg donors and non-donors from a demographically matched sample of women were examined.

RESULTS: Comparisons on MMPI-2 revealed that the control group scored significantly higher (p < .01) on Hypochondriasis, Depression, PsychopathicDeviate, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Social Introversion, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism, Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality, and Anxiety. Egg donors scored significantly higher (p < .01)on Ego Strength, Social Responsibility, Repression, and Dominance. Pure altruistic motivation was spontaneously reported by 11% of egg donors; 8.8% relayed only financial motivation; and 80.2% stated a combination of the two.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY EGG DONORS' MOTIVATIONS AND PERSONALITIES
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Gay men choosing parenthood through assisted reproduction: medical and psychosocial considerations

OBJECTIVE:

To medically and psychologically assess gay men seeking parenthood through assisted reproduction and to provide guidelines for the assessment.

RESULT(S):

The average age of men was 38.4 years. All couples were in a committed relationship and had been together for an average 6.4 years. All met medical and psychological criteria for acceptance.

CONCLUSION(S):

Gay men increasingly choose fatherhood through assisted reproduction. Counseling these couples on the medical and emotional demands of in vitro fertilization with a gestational carrier and an oocyte donor is a vital component of pretreatment preparation.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY GAY FATHERS' DECISIONS OVER GENETIC PARENTHOOD
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