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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Cross‐border surrogacy: Experiences of heterosexual and gay parents in Sweden

Introduction

Surrogacy is a controversial method of assisted reproduction that is not permitted in many countries. While there is some evidence that families following surrogacy seem to fare well, there is limited knowledge about the experiences of parents who turn to cross‐border surrogacy. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the experiences of heterosexual parents and gay fathers who chose cross‐border surrogacy to have a child.

Results

All couples but one were still living together and had a child (3 months to 5 years). Parenting stress levels were generally low and were not related to sexual orientation. While almost all parents were open about the child’s mode of conception in contacts with health care, gay fathers were significantly more open about using surrogacy in contacts with preschool (P = 0.004) and child recreational activities (P = 0.005) compared with heterosexual parents. A majority described being treated positively or “as any other parent” in these contexts.


Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian-mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

STUDY QUESTION

Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?

SUMMARY ANSWER

There were no differences in parental wellbeing.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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Transition to parenthood and quality of parenting among gay, lesbian and heterosexual couples who conceived through assisted reproduction

The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families, and 41 heterosexual-parent families with their infants. Heterosexual parents reported less positive feelings in early pregnancy than lesbian parents, while gay parents reported less positive feelings at the end of pregnancy than lesbian mothers and more positive feelings about parenthood during the first post-partum weeks than heterosexual parents. The present findings elucidate the transition to parenthood among first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproductive technologies.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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Lesbian mother families and gay father families in Italy: Family functioning, dyadic satisfaction, and child well-being

This paper compares 40 same-sex families and 40 heterosexual parents in the Italian context. Lesbian and gay parents reported higher levels of dyadic adjustment, flexibility, and communication in their family than heterosexual parents. Data from the present study demonstrated that children raised by lesbian and gay parents showed a similar level of emotion regulation and psychological well-being than children raised by heterosexual parents.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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