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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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“Not my child to give away”: A qualitative analysis of gestational surrogates’ experiences

Question

What are the experiences of gestational surrogates along the surrogacy pathway?

Findings

Seven main themes, and eighteen interrelated sub-themes grouped under the pre-, during, and post-surrogacy stages were identified. Many surrogates viewed surrogacy as a positive experience and as something meaningful and impactful to other people’s lives. Most surrogates had harmonious relationships with their intended parents and maintained on-going contact with the surrogacy family post birth.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Motivations, decision making, and MMPI-2 scores of surrogates willing to help gay men become parents

Analyses of the interview data revealed a wide range of motivations and decision-making processes (see Table 1).  Motivations that were most frequently expressed were: “Want to give or help others” (56%); “Like being pregnant” (43%); and “Empathy regarding others’ infertility” (38%).   Decision-making processes most frequently described were: “Thought about being a surrogate for a while” (58%), “Own family is complete” (57%) Perceived ability and confidence” (27%), and “Researched Surrogacy before” (27%).  Surrogates scored in the more prosocial/ adaptive direction on five of the six MMPI-2 scales (see Table 2).  Especially strong findings were that surrogates scored higher than the control group women on ego strength and social responsibility, and lower on negative emotionality/neuroticism. 

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers

BACKGROUND: This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. 

RESULTS: It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. 


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Genetic and Gestational Surrogate Mothers' Experience of Surrogacy

The psychological characteristics, motivations and experiences of surrogate mothers have not received much research attention, yet their reproductive role has significant psychological, social, theoretical and politico-legal implications. In general, the experience of surrogacy was important and very positive for most surrogates, though some negative experiences were also reported. One surrogate reported some psychopathology but no significant differences in quality of life were apparent between the groups. The implications of the lack of substantial differences between these two types of surrogates are discussed, and provide some of the evidence needed to support current debates informing legislation, information and counselling.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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“I wanted to be interesting. I wanted to be able to say ‘I've done something interesting with my life’”: Interviews with surrogate mothers in Britain

Surrogacy arrangements have generated considerable debate in Britain and elsewhere, although such debate has taken place in an empirical vacuum. Nevertheless, despite the explicit intention of government policy that there should be no provision for licensing of non-commercial surrogacy services, surrogacy arrangements are being inexorably drawn into the regulatory framework established under the provisions of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (Blyth, 1993). Following implementation of the Act an exploratory empirical study (the first of its kind to be conducted in Britain) was carried out to investigate the experiences of British surrogate mothers and commissioning parents. This paper reports on the findings concerning the experiences of the surrogate mothers involved in the study. The experiences of commissioning parents will be reported separately.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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