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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Desire for Parenthood in Context of Other Life Aspirations Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Young Adults

There were three main findings. First, while lesbian/gay individuals were less likely than heterosexual participants to express desire for parenthood, desires in the other future domains did not vary across sexual orientation. Lesbian/gay participants were as likely as heterosexual individuals to desire marriage, friendships, and community connections, as well as career and economic success. Results for expectations were, however, very different. Lesbian/gay participants were less likely than heterosexual individuals to expect that they would marry, become parents, feel connected to a community, achieve meaningful careers, live in their ideal housing, or that they would attain financial stability. Overall, for lesbian/gay young adults, low parenthood aspirations were part of a general pattern of low expectations (though not reduced desires) across a number of life domains.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY
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“Not my child to give away”: A qualitative analysis of gestational surrogates’ experiences

Question

What are the experiences of gestational surrogates along the surrogacy pathway?

Findings

Seven main themes, and eighteen interrelated sub-themes grouped under the pre-, during, and post-surrogacy stages were identified. Many surrogates viewed surrogacy as a positive experience and as something meaningful and impactful to other people’s lives. Most surrogates had harmonious relationships with their intended parents and maintained on-going contact with the surrogacy family post birth.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Single fathers by choice using surrogacy: why men decide to have a child as a single parent

STUDY QUESTION

Why do men decide to have a child by surrogacy as a single parent?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Reasons included feeling that it was the right time (i.e. having ‘worked through’ concerns about single parenthood; career and financial stability; a fear of getting older; no longer wanting to wait for the ‘right’ relationship), external encouragement, a desire to reproduce and a fear of separation/divorce.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SINGLE FATHERS
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Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood

STUDY QUESTION

Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF GAY FATHERS
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Egg donors working with gestational surrogacy agencies: Motivations and personality traits

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates motivations and personality characteristics of egg donors working with gestational surrogacy agencies. The personality traits of egg donors and non-donors from a demographically matched sample of women were examined.

RESULTS: Comparisons on MMPI-2 revealed that the control group scored significantly higher (p < .01) on Hypochondriasis, Depression, PsychopathicDeviate, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Social Introversion, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism, Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality, and Anxiety. Egg donors scored significantly higher (p < .01)on Ego Strength, Social Responsibility, Repression, and Dominance. Pure altruistic motivation was spontaneously reported by 11% of egg donors; 8.8% relayed only financial motivation; and 80.2% stated a combination of the two.


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY EGG DONORS' MOTIVATIONS AND PERSONALITIES
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Motivations, decision making, and MMPI-2 scores of surrogates willing to help gay men become parents

Analyses of the interview data revealed a wide range of motivations and decision-making processes (see Table 1).  Motivations that were most frequently expressed were: “Want to give or help others” (56%); “Like being pregnant” (43%); and “Empathy regarding others’ infertility” (38%).   Decision-making processes most frequently described were: “Thought about being a surrogate for a while” (58%), “Own family is complete” (57%) Perceived ability and confidence” (27%), and “Researched Surrogacy before” (27%).  Surrogates scored in the more prosocial/ adaptive direction on five of the six MMPI-2 scales (see Table 2).  Especially strong findings were that surrogates scored higher than the control group women on ego strength and social responsibility, and lower on negative emotionality/neuroticism. 

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers

BACKGROUND: This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. 

RESULTS: It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. 


Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Genetic and Gestational Surrogate Mothers' Experience of Surrogacy

The psychological characteristics, motivations and experiences of surrogate mothers have not received much research attention, yet their reproductive role has significant psychological, social, theoretical and politico-legal implications. In general, the experience of surrogacy was important and very positive for most surrogates, though some negative experiences were also reported. One surrogate reported some psychopathology but no significant differences in quality of life were apparent between the groups. The implications of the lack of substantial differences between these two types of surrogates are discussed, and provide some of the evidence needed to support current debates informing legislation, information and counselling.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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“I wanted to be interesting. I wanted to be able to say ‘I've done something interesting with my life’”: Interviews with surrogate mothers in Britain

Surrogacy arrangements have generated considerable debate in Britain and elsewhere, although such debate has taken place in an empirical vacuum. Nevertheless, despite the explicit intention of government policy that there should be no provision for licensing of non-commercial surrogacy services, surrogacy arrangements are being inexorably drawn into the regulatory framework established under the provisions of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (Blyth, 1993). Following implementation of the Act an exploratory empirical study (the first of its kind to be conducted in Britain) was carried out to investigate the experiences of British surrogate mothers and commissioning parents. This paper reports on the findings concerning the experiences of the surrogate mothers involved in the study. The experiences of commissioning parents will be reported separately.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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