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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Pathways to Fatherhood: Psychological Well-Being Among Israeli Gay Fathers Through Surrogacy, Gay Fathers Through Previous Heterosexual Relationships, and Heterosexual Fathers

This study explored differences in psychological well-being as assessed by life satisfaction, parenthood satisfaction, depressive symptoms and the Big Five personality dimensions among 219 Israeli fathers. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay fathers through surrogacy reported greater satisfaction with parenthood, greater satisfaction with their lives, and reported higher levels of extraversion when compared to heterosexual fathers.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY
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Parents' relationship with their surrogate in cross-border and domestic surrogacy arrangements: comparisons by sexual orientation and location

Objective

To study heterosexual and gay couples' relationship with their surrogate and their disclosure decisions when the surrogacy arrangement was completed domestically compared with internationally.

Result(s)

Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States felt very involved in the pregnancy compared with those who had surrogacy in Asia. Couples whose surrogacy was completed in Asia were less likely to want contact with their surrogate after the birth and were also less likely to have any current contact with the surrogate. Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States described positive relationships with their surrogate. Gay couples intended to tell their child about surrogacy more than heterosexual couples.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation

STUDY QUESTION

What are the perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation regarding their conception and the third party involved?

SUMMARY ANSWER

The majority of adolescents described feeling indifferent about their conception, and yet simultaneously reported an interest in the third party involved, or were in contact with them.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN HP FAMILIES
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Surrogacy families headed by gay men: relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ decisions over disclosure and children’s views on their surrogacy origins

STUDY QUESTION

How do gay father families experience surrogacy in terms of their relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ disclosure decisions and children’s views on their surrogacy origins?

SUMMARY ANSWER

More families had a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor, and almost all had started to disclose to their children, the majority of whom expressed limited interest in their surrogacy conception.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14

BACKGROUND:

The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy.

RESULTS:

There were no overall differences between disclosing families and either nondisclosing or natural conception families. However, within the disclosing families, more positive family relationships and higher levels of adolescent wellbeing were found for adolescents who had been told about their biological origins before age 7.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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Gay father surrogacy families: relationships with surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins

Objective

To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins.

Result(s)

The majority of fathers were content with the level of contact they had with the surrogate, with those who were discontent wanting more contact. Fathers were more likely to maintain relationships with surrogates than egg donors, and almost all families had started the process of talking to their children about their origins, with the level of detail and children's understanding increasing with the age of the child.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING AND EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY IN GF FAMILIES
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A cross-cultural study on surrogate mother's empathy and maternal–foetal attachment

Research objective

To determine if there is a difference in empathy and maternal–foetal attachment of surrogate mothers compared to a comparison group of mothers.

Findings

Depending on cultural background, surrogate mothers present differences in terms of empathy, anxiety and depression, social desirability and quality of attachment to the foetus compared to a normative sample.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY SURROGATES’ BONDING TO THE FOETUS
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Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child

STUDY QUESTION

How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child?

SUMMARY ANSWER

The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health.


Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY SURROGATES' FEELINGS TOWARDS THE SURROGACY CHILD
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Outcomes of surrogacy undertaken by Australians overseas

Objectives: To describe the outcomes of surrogacy among Australian intended parents who engage in compensated surrogacy overseas.

Conclusions: Almost half of the intended parents via surrogacy who completed this survey had undertaken compensated surrogacy overseas; most of these used donor eggs, but few considered Australian donors. A high proportion of surrogates had multiple pregnancies and there was a high rate of premature birth. These adverse outcomes could be avoided if the surrogacy was undertaken in Australia. Removing some of the existing barriers to surrogacy in Australia may reduce the number of surrogacy arrangements carried out overseas.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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The Desire for Parenthood: Gay Men Choosing to Become Parents Through Surrogacy

I explore how gay men understand their desire to have children and what frames their parenthood experiences. Most of the men in this study did not develop a “procreative consciousness” as a result of sexual and fertility-related events. The majority also initially accepted the notion that homosexuality was synonymous with childlessness. Awareness of the possibilities for parenthood emerged over time through the promotional activities of surrogacy agencies, through media, peers, and relationship partners. Additionally, men played with the symbols of kinship to negotiate and obscure biogenetic paternity.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY GAY FATHERS' DECISIONS OVER GENETIC PARENTHOOD
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