Men Having Babies Research Article Library


MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Understanding Parenting Intentions Among Childfree Gay Men: A Comparison With Lesbian Women and Heterosexual Men and Women

Introduction: There is a growing interest in the parenting intentions of gay men. Prior research has found that gay men are less likely to become parents compared to their heterosexual and lesbian peers, but we know very little about why this discrepancy exists. Our first aim was to investigate whether the strength of parenting intentions is similar or different among childfree gay men compared to lesbian women, and heterosexual men and women. Our second aim was to explore the extent to which the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model (attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy) is universal in predicting the strength of parenting intentions across gender and/or sexual orientation.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS OF GAY FATHERS
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Medical and Mental Health Implications of Gestational Surrogacy and Trends in State Regulations on Compensated Gestational Surrogacy

As the New York State legislature considers legalizing compensated gestational surrogacy this legislative session, this report provides insight into (1) the impact of surrogacy on the medical and mental health of women who become surrogates and the children born through gestational surrogacy, and (2) how other state legislatures have addressed compensated gestational surrogacy in recent years.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED
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Children’s Exploration of Their Surrogacy Origins in Gay Two-Father Families: Longitudinal Associations With Child Attachment Security and Parental Scaffolding During Discussions About Conception

The present study examined the separate and combined influences of child attachment security and parental scaffolding (i.e., fathers’ attempts to accept, encourage, and emotionally support their children’s expression of thoughts and feelings) during discussions about conception on children’s exploration of their surrogacy origins in 30 Italian children born to gay fathers through gestational surrogacy. Linear mixed models (LMMs) for longitudinal data indicated that, with higher levels of parental scaffolding, only children who perceived greater attachment security reported greater exploration of their surrogacy origins.

Categories: DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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Pathways to Fatherhood: Psychological Well-Being Among Israeli Gay Fathers Through Surrogacy, Gay Fathers Through Previous Heterosexual Relationships, and Heterosexual Fathers

This study explored differences in psychological well-being as assessed by life satisfaction, parenthood satisfaction, depressive symptoms and the Big Five personality dimensions among 219 Israeli fathers. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay fathers through surrogacy reported greater satisfaction with parenthood, greater satisfaction with their lives, and reported higher levels of extraversion when compared to heterosexual fathers.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY
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Desire for Parenthood in Context of Other Life Aspirations Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Young Adults

There were three main findings. First, while lesbian/gay individuals were less likely than heterosexual participants to express desire for parenthood, desires in the other future domains did not vary across sexual orientation. Lesbian/gay participants were as likely as heterosexual individuals to desire marriage, friendships, and community connections, as well as career and economic success. Results for expectations were, however, very different. Lesbian/gay participants were less likely than heterosexual individuals to expect that they would marry, become parents, feel connected to a community, achieve meaningful careers, live in their ideal housing, or that they would attain financial stability. Overall, for lesbian/gay young adults, low parenthood aspirations were part of a general pattern of low expectations (though not reduced desires) across a number of life domains.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY
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Gay Fathers by Surrogacy: Prejudice, Parenting, and Well-Being of Female and Male Children

This research focused on behavioral functioning of children conceived via gestational surrogacy and raised by gay fathers. Children of gay fathers received significantly lower scores on internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (aggression, rule-breaking) than children in the comparison sample. Most notably, daughters of gay fathers had significantly lower internalizing scores than did daughters in the national database. Results are discussed in terms of gay and heterosexual parents’ gender-related socialization of daughters’ internalizing problems and the impact of minority stress on same-sex couples’ parenting.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED WELL-BEING OF SURROGACY CHILDREN OF GAY FATHERS
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Child attachment security in gay father surrogacy families: Parents as safe havens and secure bases during middle childhood

Child attachment security and utilization of parents as safe havens and secure bases were compared in 33 surrogacy children with gay fathers and 37 donor-conceived children with lesbian mothers during middle childhood. Findings indicated that children of gay fathers perceived high attachment security and their scores did not differ from those of children with lesbian mothers or from normative scores of children with heterosexual parents. Children used the primary attachment figure more as a safe haven and the secondary attachment more as a secure base, though they reported high levels of both types of support from both parents.

Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED WELL-BEING OF SURROGACY CHILDREN OF GAY FATHERS
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Parents' relationship with their surrogate in cross-border and domestic surrogacy arrangements: comparisons by sexual orientation and location

Objective

To study heterosexual and gay couples' relationship with their surrogate and their disclosure decisions when the surrogacy arrangement was completed domestically compared with internationally.

Result(s)

Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States felt very involved in the pregnancy compared with those who had surrogacy in Asia. Couples whose surrogacy was completed in Asia were less likely to want contact with their surrogate after the birth and were also less likely to have any current contact with the surrogate. Parents who had surrogacy in the UK and United States described positive relationships with their surrogate. Gay couples intended to tell their child about surrogacy more than heterosexual couples.

Categories: EXPERIENCES OF SURROGACY DISCLOSURE OF SURROGACY ORIGINS
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“Not my child to give away”: A qualitative analysis of gestational surrogates’ experiences

Question

What are the experiences of gestational surrogates along the surrogacy pathway?

Findings

Seven main themes, and eighteen interrelated sub-themes grouped under the pre-, during, and post-surrogacy stages were identified. Many surrogates viewed surrogacy as a positive experience and as something meaningful and impactful to other people’s lives. Most surrogates had harmonious relationships with their intended parents and maintained on-going contact with the surrogacy family post birth.

Categories: MOTIVATIONS FOR SURROGACY MOTIVATIONS OF SURROGATES
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Cross‐border surrogacy: Experiences of heterosexual and gay parents in Sweden

Introduction

Surrogacy is a controversial method of assisted reproduction that is not permitted in many countries. While there is some evidence that families following surrogacy seem to fare well, there is limited knowledge about the experiences of parents who turn to cross‐border surrogacy. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the experiences of heterosexual parents and gay fathers who chose cross‐border surrogacy to have a child.

Results

All couples but one were still living together and had a child (3 months to 5 years). Parenting stress levels were generally low and were not related to sexual orientation. While almost all parents were open about the child’s mode of conception in contacts with health care, gay fathers were significantly more open about using surrogacy in contacts with preschool (P = 0.004) and child recreational activities (P = 0.005) compared with heterosexual parents. A majority described being treated positively or “as any other parent” in these contexts.


Categories: OUTCOMES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES FOR GAY FATHERS
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